How to do quotes in Spanish academic texts

Spanish freelance proofreader
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One of the most demanded proofreading things is check the references in the text.

In Spanish as in English you need to reference every author from who you take ideas or statements. Most journals have their own rules for referencing, but they are very similar too.

You will likely need to reference the author surname plus the publication data of the work in the text, and then in a final section of the paper you will have to add a reference list in alphabetical order.

In short quoting in Spanish is quite similar to quoting in English, and here the issues usually come because the author don’t know how to quote properly in English either.

Here you can see an example of quoting rules followed by many Spanish journals.

And now, take a look to some

Tips to make quoting easier

  1. Every time you read a book or academic journal that you feel you can use in the future, add it to your reference data base. There are some software to help you with this, but if you don’t want to spend money, just use an Excell.
  2. Every time you quote someone in your text, add the full quotation. Sometimes people just write a little reference, like the surname or the title of the work, and then when the full paper is finished complete all the references. This is, in my opinion, a mistake. It is much better if you create your references in the time you are quoting it, when all the details are still fresh.
  3. Always do the quotation in the same way. This is a need of the academic rules so you must do it anyway, but it also helps you to don’t miss any important section of the quotation. If the editor is before the place of publication in one quotation, all the rest should be in the same order.

I am used to doing academic texts for myself so I can check your reference list or do many other proofreader tasks.

Don’t hesitate to contact me.

How to write an academic work in Spanish (II)

Today’s post comes from this post about the structure of an academic text in Spanish.

This time I will focus in the person in which the text should be written. Should I have to write in first person? Or impersonal? Or what is the same when writing my academic report I need to use YO such as he efectuado or a passive voice like se ha efectuado.

In Spanish academic texts you can use both first person or impersonal. But once you opt for one way you need to keep it all along the text. So you can’t start talking in first person and finish talking impersonal. That is one good reason to hire someone to proofread you Spanish academic text.

It is common to use the plural of the first person, like hemos realizado even when the author of the paper is a single one.

If you want to publish the paper in an academic journal you need to read their requirements. Sometimes they specify if you have to use impersonal or first person. If there is not information about the subject I would suggest to user impersonal way and passive voice because some people would find first person too informal for an academic writing.

However, it depends more on the reader that in a real well-known rule.

How to write an academic work in Spanish (I)

Many foreign students of Spanish need to do university research works for their Spanish class, and it is always hard to find a guide about how to do this kind of academic texts. I will share some tips to those who sometimes need to write an academic text in Spanish.

I don’t want to do a very large article so I will divide the full content into various posts.

Today I will focus in

The structure of an academic text in Spanish

First of all you need an introduction (in Spanish introducción) in which you have to talk about three main things.

The topic of the text or what the text is about.The goal of the text or what is the value added to the reader. The methodology used or how you achieved that value. Also, you can talk about the most important conclusion, though this is not mandatory and maybe you want to keep something to the rest of the text.

After the introducción, you could start with some theory written by experts about your research topic. Don’t forget to add all the references in the text body and in the end of the article. How to quote in Spanish is a long topic, and maybe I will write a post about it in the future.

The theory part cold be called marco teórico, but it is very common that people use more suggestive titles that give an idea about what the text is about.

Once you have shown that you know the previous theory related with your research topic, you have to explain how you developed your research and the results that it gave.

Then you have to write the conclusions, in which you should summarize the new things that your research have add to the world.

Lastly, you need your reference list in alphabetic order. Some authors put the references in the footer if each page, but this is old fashioned and now we are trending to the final list in a full body page.

If you don’t feel comfortable with your text, you always can hire a proofreader.

New words in Spanish

When writing your website content, have you ever been guessing if a word exists in Spanish? Here we talk about the RAE institution and the best place to check wheather a words exists or not in Spanish.

Spanish is a very fluid language; in fact, there are hundreds of new words each year, all of them approved and institutionalized by the Real Academia Española or RAE (Grand Spanish Academy, in English) in their official dictionary. Most of these new words are related to technology, industry, everyday life or similar topics. The usage of new words comes from the deformation of an original word in another language (for example, “cederrón” for CD-ROM) or when an important group of people from some region or culture starts to introduce a new term to refer to something that already exists (or not, in cases of new inventions, new places, new discoveries, etc.), and sometimes when an original word in Spanish is spelled or used incorrectly, but this mistaken word has such intense usage in some communities and populations that finally becomes officially approved. Also, in lesser amount, in some cases original words from other languages are added in the dictionary just like the way they are spelled in the original language (for example, “performance” from French), or translated terms when a new word is created in another language.

RAE institution has more than 300 years of existance (was founded in 1714 in Spain). It is located in Madrid, Spain, and it is famous in this country and in every other Spanish speaking place in the world, like South America and some places in Africa . There has been, so far, 23 editions of the official dictionary of the RAE. Also, the institution is dedicated to perform other kind of linguistic works, like the grammar manual. Even though the Real Academia Española is the most important Spanish linguistic organization, there are more institutions of this nature of target, like the Academia Colombiana de la Lengua, the Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua, the Academia Mexicana de la Lengua, and many others, specially in South America.

Despite of its renowned position and respectful reputation, the Real Academia Española has been critized over the years in some aspects of its performances in the Spanish language usage and understanding, with cases considered extreme, for example, when the RAE came up with the suggestion of translating the foreign last names into new words with Spanish fonetics and adding them to the dictionary.

How to Avoid the Freelance Writer’s Block

copywriter nightmare
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Let me introduce you to the every copywriter nightmare: You’re on a roll with the story that your client wants you to write. Your fingers type faster than you thought was possible, and you’re at the scene where things start getting intense. Then, out of nowhere, you don’t know what to write about. This will happen to almost any writer. So how do you avoid it? As a freelancer, you have a few options for you to choose.

  1. Write an outline beforehand. Some story jobs provide you with an outline, but if not, you should create at least a bare-bones one that will highlight what happens in every chapter. Making the story up as you go can be fun, but if you’re on a deadline, then you may run into a few corners.
  2. Find inspiration. This is ideal if you don’t even know what the outline should be like. Go outside and take a walk. Look around and see if you can base your story on anything. Just start writing whatever comes to your head. Read a book and see if you can gather any ideas. There are quite a few ways that you can get a grasp on what to write about.
  3. Do another job. If you’re a freelancer, you probably have a few other tasks you need to do besides the one that gave you writer’s block. Sometimes doing another job and giving your brain time to rest from the other will make it easier to continue the story once you go back to it. Unless you’re on a tight deadline, this can be a good way to mix it up and avoid burnout.

Overall, there are many options when it comes to unclogging that writer’s block. As a freelance writer, it’s important that you take care of that as soon as possible and learn to avoid it in the future.

Main Differences and Similarities Between Spanish and English

copywriter Spanish culture
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As Spanish copywriter one of the things I offer to my clients is my knowledge of the Spanish culture. Today I will take a look to some differences between Spanish and English.

Spanish and English are similar languages in some aspects and have particular characteristics in common, while in other cases we can see notorious differences. One of this peculiar similarities is that both languages have thousands of words that are almost the same; they have just a few differences in writing and speaking between them (for example, “institución” and “institution”, “complejo” and “complex”, or “violeta” and “violet”). This was formerly caused by the Roman invasion in Great Britain centuries ago, when they mixed up the Latin with the native Celtic and Anglo-Saxon languages, and then continued over the years when in the Spanish speaking countries the new words in English were adapted and incorporated.

One important difference between Spanish and English is the adjectives and nouns position on the phrase structure. Also, while in English every name, place and special adjectives must start with capital letter, in the Spanish language this is not the same; only names and other few cases must have this condition, but location adjectives and even date names and similar ones don’t require this as an obligation.

Another determinating difference is that in Spanish the person usage can be easily noticed; there are specific words to define if the conversation (or text) is destined to a well known, relative person, or it is a serious conversation that needs formality with an unknown person. This can be seen in the “tú” (or “vos”) and the “usted” words. In English, this distinction is possible by using and remarking other kind of words, because it is always used the “you” word when must refer to another person; it is possible to use a wide range of formal and serious terms to make this possible, and changing the language depending on what person you wish to talk (or write) to.

Finally, English has a huge amount of dilaects and regional divisions, because it is spoken in several countries and places in the world, and this is influenced by the fact that English is also the international language at this time. But Spanish also have lot of regional differences but it seems easier to understand each other for Spanish speakers than the English ones.